Frontiers in Psychology, in press. PMCID: PMC 4400858
The scope of reference of a word’s meaning can be highly variable. We present a novel paradigm to investigate the ﬂexible interpretation of word meaning. We focus on quantiﬁers such as “many” or “few,” a class of words that depends on number knowledge but can be interpreted in a ﬂexible manner. Healthy young adults performed a truth value judgment task on pictorial arrays of varying amounts of blue and yellow circles, deciding whether the sentence “Many/few of the circles are yellow” was an adequate description of the stimulus. The study consisted of two experiments, one focusing on “many,” one on “few.” Each experiment had three blocks. In a ﬁrst “baseline” block, each individual’s criterion for “many” and “few” was assessed. In a second “adaptation” block, subjects received feedback about their decisions that was different from their initial judgments in an effort to evaluate the ﬂexibility of a subject’s interpretation. A third “test” block assessed whether adaptation of quantiﬁer meaning induced in block 2 then was generalized to alter a subject’s baseline meaning for “many” and “few.” In Experiment 1, a proportion of yellow circles as small as 40% was reinforced as “many”; in Experiment 2, a proportion of yellow circles as large as 60% was reinforced as “few.” Subjects learned the new criterion for “many” in Experiment 1, which also affected their criterion for “few” although it had never been mentioned. Likewise, in Experiment 2, subjects changed their criterion for “few,” with a comparable effect on the criterion for “many” which was not mentioned. Thus, the meaning of relational quantiﬁers like “many” and “few” is ﬂexible and can be adapted. Most importantly, adapting the criterion for one quantiﬁer (e.g., “many”) also appeared to affect the reciprocal quantiﬁer (in this case, “few”). Implications of this result for psychological interventions and for investigations of the neurobiology of the language-number interface are discussed.
FTD Caregiver, Jamie Arking, shares the story of his father's experience with Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD).
FTD Caregiver, Sandy Karger, shares the story of her husband's experience with Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD).
FTD Caregiver, Diane Fehon, shares the story of her husband's experience with Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD).
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that dramatically affects the lives of both the patient and their loved ones. Hear the stories of three dedicated FTD caregivers and their experience with the Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center.
William Reiter of the Alzheimer’s Association Delaware Valley Chapter wrapped up the conference with a presentation on community resources.
Matthew Sharp, MSS of the Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration (AFTD) discusses the importance of FTD Advocacy.
Paul L. Feldman, a founding partner of the law firm of Feldman and Feldman, stressed that it is never too early to talk about and plan for the future.
The Penn FTD Center's Lauren Massimo, PhD, CRNP discusses decision making in advanced illness, focussing on interventions to promote quality of life
Dr. Corey McMillan discusses the importance of biomarkers.
Dr. David Irwin of the Penn FTD Center discusses how improving the ability to distinguish between FTD subtypes is crucial to both clinical treatment and research
Diane Fehon talks about her FTD caregiving journey
Murray Grossman, MD, EdD Intrdoces the premiere of Through the Eyes of the Caregiver: The Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration (FTD) Center
Alison Lynn, MSW, LSW of the Penn Memory Center discusses how the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease in a loved one impacts children and teens.
Kaylee Faulkner Naczi, MS, CGC of the Penn Telegenetics Program educates the audience about the genetics of FTD
Dr. Roy Hamilton discusses strategies for improving Primary Progressive Aphasia
Anna Yung, BSN, RN presents practical strategies for managing symptoms at home
Dr. H. Branch Coslett from the Penn Neuroscience Center presents on Corticobasal Syndrome & Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Dr. Colin Quinn who treats patients at the Veteran's Association and the Penn Neuroscience Center presents on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Dr. Murray Grossman presents an overview of behavioral-variant Frontotemporal Degeneration (bvFTD) and Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA).